Archetypes, Heroes and Villains
Archetype - Examples and Definition of Archetype: "Archetype Definition
In literature, an archetype is a typical character, an action or a situation that seems to represent such universal patterns of human nature.
An archetype, also known as universal symbol, may be a character, a theme, a symbol or even a setting. Many literary critics are of the opinion that archetypes, which have a common and recurring representation in a particular human culture or entire human race, shape the structure and function of a literary work.
Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist, argued that the root of an archetype is in the “collective unconscious” of mankind. The phrase “collective unconscious” refers to experiences shared by a race or culture. This includes love, religion, death, birth, life, struggle, survival etc. These experiences exist in the subconscious of every individual and are recreated in literary works or in other forms of art."
"Whenever the social structure of the unconscious is dissolved, the individual has to take a heroic journey within to find new forms. The biblical tradition, which provided the structuring myth for Western culture, is largely ineffective … So there must be a new quest."
Joseph Campbell, interviewed by Sam Keen, in "Man & Myth: A Conversation with Joseph Campbell,” Psychology Today, July 1971